What Is Personalized Nutrition and Nutrigenomics?



Nutrigenomics studies how the genes of individuals interact with their diet and how it impacts their physiology and health. This was made possible by the Human Genome Project. Research continues to uncover why some individuals respond differently to the same type of foods, supplements, and beverages. One of the most significant advantages of studying nutrigenomics is the practical application of improving people’s health through personalized nutrition.

Nutrigenomics testing continues to expand our view on how food molecules impact human cells. In other words, the nutrigenomics definition is simply food interacting with your genes, as diet plays a key role in determining your health. However, it’s still not clear to most health professionals what people should eat to optimize their health and performance. Currently, diet recommendations are based on a one-size-fits-all model, which was created decades ago.

How Genes Impact Nutrition

Each individual is born with numerous variations within their DNA, known as “single nucleotide polymorphisms” (SNPs). With SNPs, most of the enzymes do not function at peak capacity, making it possible to increase this activity by using the right phytochemical.

Nutrigenomics makes it possible for healthcare professionals to create personalized nutrition recommendations based on an individual’s genetic profile. These individuals can optimize their health by eating a proper diet that best matches their genetics and lifestyle.

Personalized Nutrition, or BioIndividual Nutrition®, is the link between our genes and lifestyle/environment.

Personalized nutrition can target these specific SNPs, as this is much more effective than following general dietary guidelines. And our genes can help us determine which foods we might not tolerate, such as gluten.

Evolution of Nutrigenomic Testing

Nutrigenomic testing continues to evolve, as now tests can focus on different well-being or health issues. But genetic testing is not the full picture. There are other factors, such as whether a gene is expressing or not, which is not determined by testing. There is also a complex interplay among genes, and the recommendations are only as good as the research and intelligence behind the algorithms.  Nutrigenomic testing is one way we can personalize nutrition, but additional factors need to be considered. At the BioIndividual Nutrition Institute we train practitioners to consider: symptoms, health conditions, food reactions and dietary consumption, the microbiome, mitochondrial and metabolic function, nutrient deficiencies, genetic testing, and more.

Additional research is needed to understand complex gene-diet interactions better, as nutrigenomics offers plenty of potential for individuals looking to improve their health by following a personalized nutrition plan.

Individual Nutrition Counseling

Following individual nutrition counseling can play an important role in improving your health, as no two individuals are the same. For example, one in three people has a poor response to sugar. Teaching these individuals how to avoid these spikes in blood glucose can dramatically reduce their chance of developing diabetes.

Today’s standard nutrition guidelines are developed from questionnaires about the type of food people ate in the last year. However, this approach is flawed because many respondents are poor at trying to recall their food choices, and the average of all this data doesn’t offer any personalized guidance.

Individual Responses to Food

Trying to determine how genes affect obesity remains a challenge, as various studies show that this number ranges from 35 to 85 percent. [1] Following the same diet can impact people in different ways, as a recent study  focused on how participants processed the same type of food, which included identical twins. The study, called the PREDICT1 study, showed how a person metabolizing one macronutrient isn’t a predictor of how that individual will respond to other macronutrients.[2] Additional studies are needed to better determine the ideal diet for an individual.

Why Genes Play a Limited Role in Processing Fats and Carbohydrates

The PREDICT  study  also focused on the variety of gut microbes while analyzing their responses to different diets. The study included 300 British volunteers, 100 individuals from the United States, and 700 identical twins. Data was gathered for anything impacting the metabolism, such as exercise, body fat composition, sleep duration, and microbiota. The initial results focused on the insulin, glucose, and triglyceride levels of the participants after eating a standard meal.

The team found that genes only play a limited role in the processing of fats and carbs. For example, only half of the post-meal glucose levels and less than 30 percent of the triglyceride and insulin response could be connected to genetic influence among identical twins. More important factors in how the body metabolizes food seem to be sleep, exercise, stress levels, and the diversity of the gut microbiome.

Closing Thoughts

Following a personalized nutrition plan can make a big difference in helping people to live healthier lives. Nutrigenomics makes it possible to study the correlation between your diet and how it interacts with your genes. Understanding underlying factors affecting your client or patient’s symptoms and condition such as food reactions, the microbiome, mitochondrial and metabolic function, and nutrient deficiencies can help you determine the best personalized diet and nutrition plan to improve the health of the individual.


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1. Bush, C. L., Blumberg, J. B., El-Sohemy, A., Minich, D. M., Ordovás, J. M., Reed, D. G., & Behm, V. A. Y. (2019). Toward the Definition of Personalized Nutrition: A Proposal by The American Nutrition Association. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1-11.

2. Kordas K, Lonnerdal B, Stoltzfus RJ. Interactions between nutrition and environmental exposures: effects on health outcomes in women and children. The Journal of nutrition. 2007 Dec 1;137(12):2794-7.

3. Ferguson LR, De Caterina R, Görman U, Allayee H, Kohlmeier M, Prasad C, Choi MS, Curi R, De Luis DA, Gil Á, Kang JX. Guide and position of the international society of nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics on personalised nutrition: part 1-fields of precision nutrition. Lifestyle Genomics. 2016;9(1):12-27.

4. Rubio-Aliaga I, Kochhar S, Silva-Zolezzi I. Biomarkers of nutrient bioactivity and efficacy: a route toward personalized nutrition. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. 2012 Aug 1;46(7):545-54.